Pangium edule - Unknown
Part: Unknown
Author: Public Domain - WikiMedia

Upload a new image!

Details Top

Internal ID UUID644055dcc4028904056944
Scientific name Pangium edule
Authority Reinw.
First published in Syll. Pl. Nov. ii. (1828) 12.

Description Top

Suggest a correction or write a new one!
Pangium is a genus of trees found in Southeast Asia, with the sole species being Pangium edule. It is a tall tree that produces a large poisonous fruit, which can be made edible through fermentation. The tree is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate individuals. Its taxonomy is uncertain and it may also be classified in the Flacourtiaceae or Violales family. The tree takes many years to mature and its seeds are mainly harvested from wild trees. While poisonous to humans, the seeds are a natural part of the babirusa's diet. In Indonesian cooking, the seeds are used as a spice in dishes like rawon beef stew. The seeds are first boiled and then fermented for forty days to remove the poison. The kernels can also be ground into a black gravy called rawon, which is used in various dishes in different regions of Indonesia. The leaves of the tree are also used as a vegetable in some dishes. The edible portions of the plant are a good source of vitamin C and iron.

Synonyms Top

Scientific name Authority First published in
Pangium rumphii Voigt Hort. Suburb. Calcutt. 85. 1845
Pangium naumannii Warb. Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] iii. 6a (1893) 23.
Pangium ceramense Teijsm. & Binn. ex Slooten Bijdr. Combret. Flacourt. Ned.-Ind. 80 (1919).
Hydnocarpus polyandra Blanco Fl. Filip., ed. 2 : 545 (1845)
Hydnocarpus polyandrus Blanco Fl. Filip., ed. 2 [F.M. Blanco] 545. 1845
Hydnocarpus edulis (Reinw.) Peterm. Pflanzenreich [Petermann] ed. 1: 827. [1841-45]

Common names Top

Add a new one! Suggest a correction!

Language Common/alternative name
English football fruit
English rowal
ace pangè
ban pangi
bjn kalawak
German keluak
Indonesian kepayang
Indonesian kluwak
Japanese パンギノキ
jv kluwak
jv kluwek
mad pakem
min simauang
min kapencong
min kapecong
min kapencuang
min kapayang
min supayang
min simawang
Malay pokok kepayang
Dutch kepayang
Russian пангиум съедобный
su picung
Chinese 黑羹树
Chinese 印尼黑果

Subspecies (abbr. subsp./ssp.) Top

Add a new one! Suggest a correction!
No subspecies added yet.

Varieties (abbr. var.) Top

Add a new one! Suggest a correction!
No variety added yet.

Subvarieties (abbr. subvar.) Top

Add a new one! Suggest a correction!
No subvariety added yet.

Forms (abbr. f.) Top

Add a new one! Suggest a correction!
No forms added yet.

Germination/Propagation Top

Suggest a correction or add new data!
No germination or propagation data was added yet.

Distribution (via POWO/KEW) Top

Legend for the distribution data:
- Doubtful data
- Extinct
- Introduced
- Native
  • Asia-tropical
    • Indo-China
      • Nicobar Nicobar
    • Malesia
      • Borneo
      • Jawa
      • Lesser Sunda Islands
      • Malaya
      • Maluku
      • Philippines
      • Sulawesi
      • Sumatera
    • Papuasia
      • Bismarck Archipelago
      • New Guinea
      • Solomon Islands
  • Pacific
    • Northwestern Pacific
      • Caroline Islands
      • Marianas
    • Southwestern Pacific
      • Santa Cruz Island
      • Vanuatu

Links to other databases Top

Suggest others/fix!
Database ID/link to page
World Flora Online wfo-0001246546
Tropicos 50137531
The Plant List tro-50137531
Open Tree Of Life 729276
NCBI Taxonomy 112823
NBN Atlas NHMSYS0021196278
IUCN Red List 143874361
IPNI 111972-1
iNaturalist 347673
GBIF 3879135
Freebase /m/080jt7n
EOL 5739244
Elurikkus 432277
Wikipedia Pangium

Genomes (via NCBI) Top

No reference genome is available on NCBI yet. We are constantly monitoring for new data.

Scientific Literature Top

Below are displayed the latest 15 articles published in PMC (PubMed Central®) and other sources (DOI number only)!
If you wish to see all the related articles click here.
Title Authors Publication Released IDs
Pest categorisation of Pyrrhoderma noxium Bragard C, Baptista P, Chatzivassiliou E, Di Serio F, Gonthier P, Jaques Miret JA, Justesen AF, MacLeod A, Magnusson CS, Milonas P, Navas‐Cortes JA, Parnell S, Potting R, Stefani E, Thulke H, Van der Werf W, Vicent Civera A, Yuen J, Zappalà L, Golic D, Gobbi A, Maiorano A, Pautasso M, Reignault PL EFSA J 19-Mar-2024
Unveiling the MUFA–Cancer Connection: Insights from Endogenous and Exogenous Perspectives Guo Z, Bergeron KF, Lingrand M, Mounier C Int J Mol Sci 08-Jun-2023
Detection of Markers in Green Beans and Roasted Beans of Kalosi-Enrekang Arabica Coffee with Different Postharvest Processing Using LC-MS/MS Yulianti Y, Adawiyah DR, Herawati D, Indrasti D, Andarwulan N Int J Food Sci 23-Mar-2023
Exploring Foods of the Pacific: Cultural Food Identity in the US Affiliated Pacific Region Dela Cruz R, Wolfe E, Yonemori KM, Fialkowski MK, Wilkens LR, Coleman P, Lameko-Mua S, Johnson E, Gilmatam D, Sigrah C, Shomour M, Remengesau S, Alfred J, Acosta M, Ettienne R, Deenik J, Tanisha A, Salazar KA, Novotny R, Boushey CJ Hawaii J Health Soc Welf 01-Sep-2022
Chicken liver and eggshell crackers as a safe and affordable animal source food for overcoming micronutrient deficits during pregnancy and lactation in Indonesia: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (SISTIK Growth Study) Diana A, Rahmannia S, Suhadi YZ, Luftimas DE, Rizqi H, Purnamasari AD, Jihadillah A, Ansari MB, Haq DA, Pratiwi AN, Scott S, Hampel D, Allen LH, Haszard JJ, Houghton LA, Gibson RS, Fahmida U Wellcome Open Res 09-Jun-2022
DNA Barcoding Medicinal Plant Species from Indonesia Cahyaningsih R, Compton LJ, Rahayu S, Magos Brehm J, Maxted N Plants (Basel) 21-May-2022
Culture matters: A systematic review of antioxidant potential of tree legumes in the semiarid region of Brazil and local processing techniques as a driver of bioaccessibility Jacob MC, da Silva-Maia JK, Albuquerque UP, Pereira FD PLoS One 09-Mar-2022
Antifungal Activity and Major Bioactive Compounds of Water Extract of Pangium edule Seed against Aspergillus flavus Listyorini KI, Kusumaningrum HD, Lioe HN Int J Food Sci 04-Oct-2021
Potential of Plant Bioactive Compounds as SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease (Mpro) and Spike (S) Glycoprotein Inhibitors: A Molecular Docking Study Tallei TE, Tumilaar SG, Niode NJ, Fatimawali, Kepel BJ, Idroes R, Effendi Y, Sakib SA, Emran TB Scientifica (Cairo) 23-Dec-2020
Metabolite Profile of Xylem Sap in Cotton Seedlings Is Changed by K Deficiency Zhang X, Wang G, Xue H, Zhang J, Wang Q, Zhang Z, Zhang B Front Plant Sci 10-Dec-2020
Phytogenic Products and Phytochemicals as a Candidate Strategy to Improve Tolerance to Coronavirus Attia YA, Alagawany MM, Farag MR, Alkhatib FM, Khafaga AF, Abdel-Moneim AM, Asiry KA, Mesalam NM, Shafi ME, Al-Harthi MA, Abd El-Hack ME Front Vet Sci 20-Oct-2020
The first Australian plant foods at Madjedbebe, 65,000–53,000 years ago Florin SA, Fairbairn AS, Nango M, Djandjomerr D, Marwick B, Fullagar R, Smith M, Wallis LA, Clarkson C Nat Commun 17-Feb-2020
Socialising over fruits and vegetables: the biocultural importance of an open-air market in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Franco FM, Chaw LL, Bakar N, Abas SN J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 31-Jan-2020
An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea Koch M, Kehop DA, Kinminja B, Sabak M, Wavimbukie G, Barrows KM, Matainaho TK, Barrows LR, Rai PP J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14-Nov-2015

Phytochemical Profile Top

Add a new one!
Below are displayed the proven (via scientific papers) natural compounds!
You can also contribute to this by clicking here.
Name PubChem ID Canonical SMILES MW Found in Proof
> Benzenoids / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Benzoic acids and derivatives / Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 72 Click to see C1=CC(=C(C=C1C(=O)O)O)O 154.12 unknown via CMAUP database
> Benzenoids / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Benzoic acids and derivatives / Methoxybenzoic acids and derivatives / M-methoxybenzoic acids and derivatives
Vanillic Acid 8468 Click to see COC1=C(C=CC(=C1)C(=O)O)O 168.15 unknown via CMAUP database
> Benzenoids / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Phenylacetic acids / 2(hydroxyphenyl)acetic acids
2-Hydroxy-5-butoxyphenylacetic acid 15108711 Click to see CCCCOC1=CC(=C(C=C1)O)CC(=O)O 224.25 unknown via CMAUP database
> Benzenoids / Phenols / Benzenediols / Hydroquinones
2,5-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid butyl ester 44217017 Click to see CCCCOC(=O)CC1=C(C=CC(=C1)O)O 224.25 unknown via CMAUP database
Ethyl 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetate 297396 Click to see CCOC(=O)CC1=C(C=CC(=C1)O)O 196.20 unknown via CMAUP database
Methyl 2-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)acetate 13790504 Click to see COC(=O)CC1=C(C=CC(=C1)O)O 182.17 unknown via CMAUP database
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Fatty Acyls / Fatty acyl glycosides / Fatty acyl glycosides of mono- and disaccharides
Entadamide-A-beta-D-glucopyranoside 101616680 Click to see CSC=CC(=O)NCCOC1C(C(C(C(O1)CO)O)O)O 323.36 unknown via CMAUP database
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Prenol lipids / Terpene glycosides / Triterpene glycosides / Triterpene saponins
[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3-[(2S,3R,4R)-4-[[(2S,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]oxy-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl] (4aR,5S,6R,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,10S,12aR,14bS)-10-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-4-[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-5,6-dihydroxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-4a-carboxylate 72737016 Click to see CC(=O)NC1C(C(C(OC1OC2CCC3(C(C2(C)C)CCC4(C3CC=C5C4(C(C(C6(C5CC(CC6)(C)C)C(=O)OC7C(C(C(C(O7)CO)O)O)OC8C(C(CO8)(COC9C(C(CO9)(CO)O)O)O)O)O)O)C)C)C)COC1C(C(C(CO1)O)OC1C(C(C(CO1)O)O)O)O)OC1C(C(C(C(O1)CO)O)O)O)O 1544.60 unknown via CMAUP database
[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3-[(2S,3R,4R)-4-[[(2S,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]oxy-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl] (4aS,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,10S,12aR,14bS)-10-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-4-[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-4a-carboxylate 72736851 Click to see CC(=O)NC1C(C(C(OC1OC2CCC3(C(C2(C)C)CCC4(C3CC=C5C4(CCC6(C5CC(CC6)(C)C)C(=O)OC7C(C(C(C(O7)CO)O)O)OC8C(C(CO8)(COC9C(C(CO9)(CO)O)O)O)O)C)C)C)COC1C(C(C(CO1)O)OC1C(C(C(CO1)O)O)O)O)OC1C(C(C(C(O1)CO)O)O)O)O 1512.60 unknown via CMAUP database
[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl] (4aR,5S,6R,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,10S,12aR,14bS)-10-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-4-[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-5,6-dihydroxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-4a-carboxylate 72736852 Click to see CC(=O)NC1C(C(C(OC1OC2CCC3(C(C2(C)C)CCC4(C3CC=C5C4(C(C(C6(C5CC(CC6)(C)C)C(=O)OC7C(C(C(C(O7)CO)O)O)OC8C(C(C(CO8)O)O)O)O)O)C)C)C)COC9C(C(C(CO9)O)OC1C(C(C(CO1)O)O)O)O)OC1C(C(C(C(O1)CO)O)O)O)O 1412.50 unknown via CMAUP database
[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(acetyloxymethyl)-3-[(2S,3R,4R)-4-[[(2S,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]oxy-4,5-dihydroxyoxan-2-yl] (4aR,5S,6R,6aR,6aS,6bR,8aR,10S,12aR,14bS)-10-[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-4-[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]-4-hydroxy-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-5,6-dihydroxy-2,2,6a,6b,9,9,12a-heptamethyl-1,3,4,5,6,6a,7,8,8a,10,11,12,13,14b-tetradecahydropicene-4a-carboxylate 72737187 Click to see CC(=O)NC1C(C(C(OC1OC2CCC3(C(C2(C)C)CCC4(C3CC=C5C4(C(C(C6(C5CC(CC6)(C)C)C(=O)OC7C(C(C(C(O7)COC(=O)C)O)O)OC8C(C(CO8)(COC9C(C(CO9)(CO)O)O)O)O)O)O)C)C)C)COC1C(C(C(CO1)O)OC1C(C(C(CO1)O)O)O)O)OC1C(C(C(C(O1)CO)O)O)O)O 1586.70 unknown via CMAUP database
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Prenol lipids / Triterpenoids
Entagenic acid 21594206 Click to see CC1(CCC2(C(C1)C3=CCC4C5(CCC(C(C5CCC4(C3(C(C2O)O)C)C)(C)C)O)C)C(=O)O)C 488.70 unknown via CMAUP database
> Organic nitrogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Amines / Alkanolamines / 1,2-aminoalcohols / N-acylethanolamines
Entadamide B 3035981 Click to see CSC(CC(=O)NCCO)SC 209.30 unknown via CMAUP database
N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-3-methylthiopropenamide 6439215 Click to see CSC=CC(=O)NCCO 161.22 unknown via CMAUP database
> Organic oxygen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates / Glycosyl compounds / Phenolic glycosides
2-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxyphenylacetic acid butyl ester 102143698 Click to see CCCCOC(=O)CC1=C(C=CC(=C1)O)OC2C(C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O)O 386.40 unknown via CMAUP database
2-beta-d-Glucopyranosyloxy-5-butoxyphenylacetic acid 15108713 Click to see CCCCOC1=CC(=C(C=C1)OC2C(C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O)O)CC(=O)O 386.40 unknown via CMAUP database
Phaseoloidin 14104237 Click to see C1=CC(=C(C=C1O)CC(=O)O)OC2C(C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O)O 330.29 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavans / Catechins
(1R,8S,9R,16R,18S,27S)-9-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,8,16,21,23-pentahydroxy-2,10,17,26-tetraoxaheptacyclo[,13.03,12.06,11.018,27.020,25]octacosa-3(12),4,6(11),13,20,22,24-heptaen-15-one 101925531 Click to see C1C(C(OC2=C1C(=CC3=C2C4=CC(=O)C5(CC4(O3)C6C(O5)CC7=C(C=C(C=C7O6)O)O)O)O)C8=CC(=C(C=C8)O)O)O 576.50 unknown via CMAUP database
Cianidanol 9064 Click to see C1C(C(OC2=CC(=CC(=C21)O)O)C3=CC(=C(C=C3)O)O)O 290.27 unknown via CMAUP database
Epicatechin 72276 Click to see C1C(C(OC2=CC(=CC(=C21)O)O)C3=CC(=C(C=C3)O)O)O 290.27 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavans / Catechins / Epigallocatechins
Epigallocatechin 72277 Click to see C1C(C(OC2=CC(=CC(=C21)O)O)C3=CC(=C(C(=C3)O)O)O)O 306.27 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavans / Flavanones
Naringenin 439246 Click to see C1C(OC2=CC(=CC(=C2C1=O)O)O)C3=CC=C(C=C3)O 272.25 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavans / Flavanones / Flavanonols
Aromadendrin 122850 Click to see C1=CC(=CC=C1C2C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)O 288.25 unknown via CMAUP database
Taxifolin 439533 Click to see C1=CC(=C(C=C1C2C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)O)O 304.25 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavones
4',7-Dihydroxyflavone 5282073 Click to see C1=CC(=CC=C1C2=CC(=O)C3=C(O2)C=C(C=C3)O)O 254.24 unknown via CMAUP database
4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy- 5487757 Click to see C1=C(C=C(C=C1O)O)C2=CC(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O 286.24 unknown via CMAUP database
Apigenin 5280443 Click to see C1=CC(=CC=C1C2=CC(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O 270.24 unknown via CMAUP database
Luteolin 5280445 Click to see C1=CC(=C(C=C1C2=CC(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)O 286.24 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavones / Flavonols
Galangin 5281616 Click to see C1=CC=C(C=C1)C2=C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O 270.24 unknown via CMAUP database
Isorhamnetin 5281654 Click to see COC1=C(C=CC(=C1)C2=C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)O 316.26 unknown via CMAUP database
Quercetin 5280343 Click to see C1=CC(=C(C=C1C2=C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)O)O 302.23 unknown via CMAUP database
Rhamnocitrin 5320946 Click to see COC1=CC(=C2C(=C1)OC(=C(C2=O)O)C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)O 300.26 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavonoid glycosides / Flavonoid O-glycosides / Flavonoid-3-O-glycosides
Rutin 5280805 Click to see CC1C(C(C(C(O1)OCC2C(C(C(C(O2)OC3=C(OC4=CC(=CC(=C4C3=O)O)O)C5=CC(=C(C=C5)O)O)O)O)O)O)O)O 610.50 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / O-methylated flavonoids / 7-O-methylated flavonoids
Ayanin 5280682 Click to see COC1=C(C=C(C=C1)C2=C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)OC)O)OC)O 344.30 unknown via CMAUP database
Kaempferol 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether 5468749 Click to see COC1=CC=C(C=C1)C2=C(C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)OC)O)OC 328.30 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Linear 1,3-diarylpropanoids / Cinnamylphenols
2'-O-Methylisoliquiritigenin 5319688 Click to see COC1=C(C=CC(=C1)O)C(=O)C=CC2=CC=C(C=C2)O 270.28 unknown via CMAUP database

Biological Material Top ebay Auctions

Please wait .. loading items ..

Contributors Top

No known contributors. Be the first!

Collections Top

In private collections 0
In public collections 0
You need to be authenticated in order to add this taxon to a personal collection.