Amaranthus spinosus - Unknown
Part: Unknown
Author: Public Domain - WikiMedia

Amaranthus spinosus - Unknown
Part: Unknown
Author: Public Domain - WikiMedia

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Details Top

Internal ID UUID644008c450305322206965
Scientific name Amaranthus spinosus
Authority L.
First published in Sp. Pl. : 991 (1753)

Description Top

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Amaranthus spinosus, also known as spiny amaranth, is a plant native to the tropical Americas but can now be found on most continents as an introduced species. It is sometimes considered a noxious weed and can be a problem for rice cultivation in Asia. However, it also has various uses, including as a dye for cloth and as a food source in many cultures. In Thai cuisine, it is known as phak khom and is often stir-fried with egg and pork. In traditional medicine, the plant has been used to treat jaundice and as a diuretic. The seeds are also a food source for many songbirds.

Synonyms Top

Scientific name Authority First published in
Amaranthus spinosus f. inermis Lauterb. & K.Schum. Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee 305 1900
Galliaria spitosa (L.) Nieuwl. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 278 (1914)
Amaranthus spinosus var. basiscissus Thell. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5: 269 1914
Amaranthus spinosus var. circumscissus Thell. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5: 269 1914
Amaranthus spinosus var. indehiscens Thell. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 5: 269 1914
Amaranthus spinosus var. purpurascens Moq. Prodr. 13(2): 260 1849
Amaranthus spinosus var. rubricaulis Hassk. Flora 25(Litt.): 20 1842
Amaranthus spinosus var. viridicaulis Hassk. Flora 25(Litt.): 20 1842
Amaranthus spinosus var. pygmaeus Hassk. Cat. Pl. Bogor. 83. 1844.

Common names Top

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Language Common/alternative name
English spiny amaranth
Arabic قطيفة شائكة
Bulgarian бодлив щир
Bambara npɔrɔn ŋɔnima
Bengali কাঁটানটে
Finnish piikkirevonhäntä
French amarante épineuse
French épinard cochon
French épinard malabar
French épinard piquant
Hindi कटीली चौलाई
Indonesian bayam cucuk
Indonesian bayam duri
Japanese ハリイヌビユ
Japanese ハリビユ
Korean 가시비름
mad tarnya' ḍuri
Malayalam മുള്ളൻ ചീര
Marathi तांदुळजा
Malay pokok bayam duri
Burmese ဟင်းနုနယ်ဆူးပေါက်
Nepali काँडे लुँडे
ny bonongwe
pam ayang lalaki
pwn ljadjulidjulis
Quechua kichka ataqu
Swedish taggamarant
Tamil முள்ளுக்கீரை
tay lalam
Telugu ముళ్ళ తోటకూర
Thai ผักโขมหนาม
Vietnamese dền gai
Chinese 刺苋菜
Chinese 竻苋菜
Chinese 勒苋菜
Chinese 簕苋菜
Chinese 刺莧
Chinese 刺苋
Chinese 刺苋 筋苋菜

Subspecies (abbr. subsp./ssp.) Top

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Varieties (abbr. var.) Top

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Subvarieties (abbr. subvar.) Top

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Forms (abbr. f.) Top

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Germination/Propagation Top

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No germination or propagation data was added yet.

Distribution (via POWO/KEW) Top

Legend for the distribution data:
- Doubtful data
- Extinct
- Introduced
- Native
  • Africa
    • East Tropical Africa
      • Kenya
      • Tanzania
      • Uganda
    • Macaronesia
      • Cape Verde
      • Madeira
    • Northeast Tropical Africa
      • Chad
      • Eritrea
      • Ethiopia
      • Sudan
    • Northern Africa
      • Egypt
      • Tunisia
    • South Tropical Africa
      • Angola
      • Malawi
      • Mozambique
      • Zambia
      • Zimbabwe
    • Southern Africa
      • Botswana
      • Kwazulu-Natal
      • Namibia
      • Northern Provinces
      • Swaziland
    • West Tropical Africa
      • Benin
      • Burkina
      • Gambia
      • Ghana
      • Guinea
      • Guinea-Bissau
      • Ivory Coast
      • Liberia
      • Mali
      • Mauritania
      • Niger
      • Nigeria
      • Senegal
      • Sierra Leone
      • Togo
    • West-central Tropical Africa
      • Burundi
      • Cameroon
      • Central African Republic
      • Congo
      • Gabon
      • Gulf Of Guinea Islands
      • Rwanda
      • Zaïre
    • Western Indian Ocean
      • Mauritius
      • Réunion
  • Asia-temperate
    • Arabian Peninsula
      • Gulf States
      • Saudi Arabia
      • Yemen
    • Caucasus
      • Transcaucasus
    • China
      • China North-central
      • China South-central
      • China Southeast
    • Eastern Asia
      • Japan
      • Kazan-retto
      • Korea
      • Nansei-shoto
      • Taiwan
    • Russian Far East
      • Primorye
    • Western Asia
      • Afghanistan
      • Cyprus
      • Iran
      • Palestine
  • Asia-tropical
    • Indian Subcontinent
      • Assam
      • Bangladesh
      • East Himalaya
      • India
      • Maldives
      • Nepal
      • Pakistan
      • Sri Lanka
      • West Himalaya
    • Indo-China
      • Andaman Islands
      • Cambodia
      • Laos
      • Myanmar
      • Nicobar Nicobar
      • South China Sea
      • Thailand
      • Vietnam
    • Malesia
      • Borneo
      • Christmas Island
      • Jawa
      • Malaya
      • Maluku
      • Philippines
      • Sulawesi
      • Sumatera
    • Papuasia
      • New Guinea
      • Solomon Islands
  • Australasia
    • Australia
      • New South Wales
      • Queensland
    • New Zealand
      • New Zealand North
  • Europe
    • Eastern Europe
      • Ukraine
    • Middle Europe
      • Czechoslovakia
    • Northern Europe
      • Denmark
      • Finland
      • Norway
      • Sweden
    • Southeastern Europe
      • Albania
      • Greece
      • Italy
    • Southwestern Europe
      • France
  • Northern America
    • Eastern Canada
      • Ontario
    • Mexico
      • Mexico Central
      • Mexico Gulf
      • Mexico Northeast
      • Mexico Northwest
      • Mexico Southeast
      • Mexico Southwest
    • North-central U.S.A.
      • Illinois
      • Iowa
      • Kansas
      • Minnesota
      • Missouri
      • Nebraska
      • Oklahoma
      • Wisconsin
    • Northeastern U.S.A.
      • Connecticut
      • Indiana
      • Maine
      • Massachusetts
      • New Jersey
      • New York
      • Ohio
      • Pennsylvania
      • Rhode Island
      • Vermont
      • West Virginia
    • South-central U.S.A.
      • Texas
    • Southeastern U.S.A.
      • Alabama
      • Arkansas
      • Delaware
      • District Of Columbia
      • Florida
      • Georgia
      • Kentucky
      • Louisiana
      • Maryland
      • Mississippi
      • North Carolina
      • South Carolina
      • Tennessee
      • Virginia
    • Southwestern U.S.A.
      • California
    • Western Canada
      • Manitoba
  • Pacific
    • North-central Pacific
      • Hawaii
    • Northwestern Pacific
      • Caroline Islands
      • Marianas
      • Marshall Islands
    • Southwestern Pacific
      • Fiji
      • Nauru
      • New Caledonia
      • Vanuatu
  • Southern America
    • Brazil
      • Brazil North
      • Brazil Northeast
      • Brazil South
      • Brazil Southeast
      • Brazil West-central
    • Caribbean
      • Bahamas
      • Cayman Islands
      • Cuba
      • Dominican Republic
      • Haiti
      • Jamaica
      • Leeward Islands
      • Puerto Rico
      • Southwest Caribbean
      • Trinidad-Tobago
      • Turks-caicos Islands
      • Venezuelan Antilles
      • Windward Islands
    • Central America
      • Belize
      • Costa Rica
      • El Salvador
      • Guatemala
      • Honduras
      • Nicaragua
      • Panamá
    • Northern South America
      • French Guiana
      • Guyana
      • Suriname
      • Venezuela
    • Southern South America
      • Argentina Northeast
      • Argentina Northwest
      • Paraguay
    • Western South America
      • Bolivia
      • Colombia
      • Ecuador
      • Galápagos
      • Peru

Links to other databases Top

Suggest others/fix!
Database ID/link to page
World Flora Online wfo-0000530495
Florida Plant Atlas 1453
Flora of Alabama 285
Canadensys 2507
Tropicos 1100013
INPN 82023
Flora of Italy 544
The Plant List kew-2633107
Open Tree Of Life 892632 145563
NCBI Taxonomy 124765
NBN Atlas NBNSYS0200001745
Nature Serve 2.144076
IPNI 10711-2
iNaturalist 62917
GBIF 5384401
Freebase /m/0872d8
WisFlora 2501
EOL 585494
Calflora (Californian flora) 284
Wikipedia Amaranthus_spinosus
PFAF Amaranthus spinosus

Genomes (via NCBI) Top

No reference genome is available on NCBI yet. We are constantly monitoring for new data.

Scientific Literature Top

Below are displayed the latest 15 articles published in PMC (PubMed Central®) and other sources (DOI number only)!
If you wish to see all the related articles click here.
Title Authors Publication Released IDs
Unleashing the promise of emerging nanomaterials as a sustainable platform to mitigate antimicrobial resistance Rahman S, Sadaf S, Hoque ME, Mishra A, Mubarak NM, Malafaia G, Singh J RSC Adv 01-May-2024
Classification and application of metal-based nanoantioxidants in medicine and healthcare Nam NN, Tran NK, Nguyen TT, Trai NN, Thuy NP, Do HD, Tran NH, Trinh KT Beilstein J Nanotechnol 12-Apr-2024
Wetland vegetation composition and ecology of Lake Abaya in southern Ethiopia Gojamme DU PLoS One 10-Apr-2024
Woody Species Composition, Structure, and Status of Regeneration in Pugnido Forest, Gambella Region, Western Ethiopia Masresha G, Melkamu Y, Mulu G Scientifica (Cairo) 04-Apr-2024
Herbal Theranostics: Controlled, Targeted Delivery and Imaging of Herbal Molecules Setia A, Vallamkonda B, Challa RR, Mehata AK, Badgujar P, Muthu MS Nanotheranostics 25-Mar-2024
Impact of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Environment on the Metabolic Profile of Medicinal Plants and Their Therapeutic Potential Asiminicesei DM, Fertu DI, Gavrilescu M Plants (Basel) 21-Mar-2024
Assessing Alien Plant Invasions in Urban Environments: A Case Study of Tshwane University of Technology and Implications for Biodiversity Conservation Nelufule T, Shivambu TC, Shivambu N, Moshobane MC, Seoraj-Pillai N, Nangammbi T Plants (Basel) 18-Mar-2024
Wild Foods Are Positively Associated with Diet Diversity and Child Growth in a Protected Forest Area of Madagascar Iannotti L, Randrianarivony T, Randrianasolo A, Rakotoarivony F, Andriamihajarivo T, LaBrier M, Gyimah E, Vie S, Nunez-Garcia A, Hart R Curr Dev Nutr 13-Feb-2024
Medicinal herbs and their metabolites with biological potential to protect and combat liver toxicity and its disorders: A review Islam Shawon S, Nargis Reyda R, Qais N Heliyon 01-Feb-2024
Ayurvedic preparations of Raudra Rasa inhibit agonist‐mediated platelet activation and restrict thrombogenicity without affecting cell viability Chaurasia SN, Singh V, Ekhlak M, Dash MK, Joshi N, Dash D FEBS Open Bio 21-Nov-2023
ALS gene overexpression and enhanced metabolism conferring Digitaria sanguinalis resistance to nicosulfuron in China Wang R, Sun Y, Lan Y, Wei S, Huang H, Li X, Huang Z Front Plant Sci 17-Nov-2023
Medicinal plants of the upper Aswa River catchment of northern Uganda - a cultural crossroads Masters ET J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 27-Oct-2023
An invasive appetite: Combining molecular and stable isotope analyses to reveal the diet of introduced house mice (Mus musculus) on a small, subtropical island Holthuijzen WA, Flint EN, Green SJ, Plissner JH, Simberloff D, Sweeney D, Wolf CA, Jones HP PLoS One 19-Oct-2023
Ethnobotanical study on edible flowers in Xishuangbanna, China Zhang Q, Cheng Z, Fan Y, Zhang D, Wang M, Zhang J, Sommano S, Wu X, Long C J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 30-Sep-2023
Comprehensive Overview of the Effects of Amaranthus and Abelmoschus esculentus on Markers of Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus Phoswa WN, Mokgalaboni K Life (Basel) 29-Aug-2023

Phytochemical Profile Top

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Below are displayed the proven (via scientific papers) natural compounds!
You can also contribute to this by clicking here.
Name PubChem ID Canonical SMILES MW Found in Proof
> Alkaloids and derivatives / Lupin alkaloids / Anagyrine-type alkaloids
Anagyrine 5351589 Click to see C1CCN2CC3CC(C2C1)CN4C3=CC=CC4=O 244.33 unknown via CMAUP database
> Alkaloids and derivatives / Lupin alkaloids / Cytisine and derivatives
Cytisinicline 10235 Click to see C1C2CNCC1C3=CC=CC(=O)N3C2 190.24 unknown via CMAUP database
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Prenol lipids / Terpene lactones / Quassinoids
Picrasin C 182145 Click to see CC1CC(C(=O)C2(C1CC3C4(C2C(C(C(C4CC(=O)O3)C)OC)OC(=O)C)C)C)O 422.50 unknown via CMAUP database
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Steroids and steroid derivatives / Stigmastanes and derivatives
beta-Sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside 296119 Click to see CCC(CCC(C)C1CCC2C1(CCC3C2CC=C4C3(CCC(C4)OC5C(C(C(C(O5)CO)O)O)O)C)C)C(C)C 576.80 unknown
Sitogluside 5742590 Click to see CCC(CCC(C)C1CCC2C1(CCC3C2CC=C4C3(CCC(C4)OC5C(C(C(C(O5)CO)O)O)O)C)C)C(C)C 576.80 unknown
> Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues / Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues
5-[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione 163193602 Click to see C1=C(C(=O)NC(=O)N1)C2C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O 244.20 unknown
> Nucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues / Pyrimidine nucleosides
alpha-Xylofuranosyluracil 129636927 Click to see C1=CNC(=O)N(C1=O)C2C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O 244.20 unknown
> Organic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids and derivatives / Amino acids, peptides, and analogues / Alpha amino acids and derivatives / Leucine and derivatives
Leucine 6106 Click to see CC(C)CC(C(=O)O)N 131.17 unknown
> Organic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids and derivatives / Amino acids, peptides, and analogues / Alpha amino acids and derivatives / Valine and derivatives
Valine 6287 Click to see CC(C)C(C(=O)O)N 117.15 unknown
> Organic oxygen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates / Amino sugars / Acylaminosugars
Man2XylManGlcNAc2 91859753 Click to see CC(=O)NC1C(C(C(OC1O)CO)OC2C(C(C(C(O2)CO)OC3C(C(C(C(O3)COC4C(C(C(C(O4)CO)O)O)O)O)OC5C(C(C(C(O5)CO)O)O)O)OC6C(C(C(CO6)O)O)O)O)NC(=O)C)O 1042.90 unknown via CMAUP database
> Organic oxygen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates / Glycosyl compounds / C-glycosyl compounds
beta-D-Ribofuranosyladenin 21829484 Click to see C1=NC2=NC(=NC(=C2N1)N)C3C(C(C(O3)CO)O)O 267.24 unknown
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Indoles and derivatives / Indolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Tryptophan 6305 Click to see C1=CC=C2C(=C1)C(=CN2)CC(C(=O)O)N 204.22 unknown
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Pyridodiazepines
Hydroxynorcytisine 25171260 Click to see C1C2CNC1C3=CC=C(C(=O)N3C2)O 192.21 unknown via CMAUP database
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Pyrrolizidines
1H-Pyrrolizine-1-methanol, hexahydro-, (1S-cis)- 94259 Click to see C1CC2C(CCN2C1)CO 141.21 unknown via CMAUP database
> Organosulfur compounds / Thioureas
Thiourea 2723790 Click to see C(=S)(N)N 76.12 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavonoid glycosides / Flavonoid O-glycosides
5-hydroxy-2-[3-hydroxy-4-[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxyphenyl]-7-methoxychromen-4-one 101939797 Click to see CC1C(C(C(C(O1)OC2=C(C=C(C=C2)C3=CC(=O)C4=C(C=C(C=C4O3)OC)O)O)O)O)O 446.40 unknown
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Isoflavonoids / Isoflav-2-enes / Isoflavones
5-O-Methylgenistein 5748551 Click to see COC1=CC(=CC2=C1C(=O)C(=CO2)C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)O 284.26 unknown via CMAUP database
Genistein 5280961 Click to see C1=CC(=CC=C1C2=COC3=CC(=CC(=C3C2=O)O)O)O 270.24 unknown via CMAUP database
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Isoflavonoids / Isoflavans / Isoflavanones / 6-prenylated isoflavanones
5,7-dihydroxy-6-[(2R)-2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chromen-4-one 26250194 Click to see CC(=C)C(CC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC=C(C2=O)C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)O)O 354.40 unknown via CMAUP database
Alpinumisoflavone 5490139 Click to see CC1(C=CC2=C(O1)C=C3C(=C2O)C(=O)C(=CO3)C4=CC=C(C=C4)O)C 336.30 unknown via CMAUP database
Luteone 5281797 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC=C(C2=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3)O)O)O)C 354.40 unknown via CMAUP database
Wighteone 5281814 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC=C(C2=O)C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)O)C 338.40 unknown via CMAUP database

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