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Details Top

Internal ID UUID643ff7e5cd6b6656722750
Scientific name Pentadesma butyracea
Authority Sabine
First published in Trans. Hort. Soc. London 5: 457 (1824)

Description Top

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Synonyms Top

Scientific name Authority First published in
Pentadesma nigritana Baker f. Cat. Pl. Oban : 7 (1913)
Pentadesma leucantha A.Chev. Vég. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 5: 166 (1909)
Pentadesma leptonema Pierre Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris , n.s., 1: 21 (1898)
Pentadesma lecomteana Pierre ex A.Chev. Vég. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 9: 64 (1917)
Pentadesma kerstingii Engl. ex Volkens Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin, Append. 22: 108 (1910)
Pentadesma parviflora Exell J. Bot. 65(Suppl. 1): 27 (1927)
Pentadesma ogoouensis Baud Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille , sér. 4, 7(1): 38 (1929)
Pentadesma leptonema var. klainei Pierre ex A.Chev. Veg. Ut. Afr. Trop. Franç. 9: 64 1917

Common names Top

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Language Common/alternative name
English butter tree
French arbre à chandelle
French beurre de kpangnan
Chinese 猪油果
Chinese 豬油果

Subspecies (abbr. subsp./ssp.) Top

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Varieties (abbr. var.) Top

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Subvarieties (abbr. subvar.) Top

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Forms (abbr. f.) Top

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Germination/Propagation Top

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No germination or propagation data was added yet.

Distribution (via POWO/KEW) Top

Legend for the distribution data:
- Doubtful data
- Extinct
- Introduced
- Native
  • Africa
    • West Tropical Africa
      • Benin
      • Burkina
      • Ghana
      • Guinea
      • Guinea-Bissau
      • Ivory Coast
      • Liberia
      • Mali
      • Nigeria
      • Sierra Leone
      • Togo
    • West-central Tropical Africa
      • Cabinda
      • Cameroon
      • Congo
      • Equatorial Guinea
      • Gabon
      • Gulf Of Guinea Islands
      • Zaïre
    • Western Indian Ocean
      • Seychelles

Links to other databases Top

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Database ID/link to page
World Flora Online wfo-0000395230
USDA Plants PEBU4
Tropicos 7801313
KEW urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:428981-1
The Plant List kew-2409114
Open Tree Of Life 373222
NCBI Taxonomy 198785
IUCN Red List 61988986
IPNI 428981-1
iNaturalist 344837
GBIF 3189435
EPPO PNDBU
EOL 484986
USDA GRIN 311302
Wikipedia Pentadesma_butyracea
CMAUP NPO7920

Genomes (via NCBI) Top

No reference genome is available on NCBI yet. We are constantly monitoring for new data.

Scientific Literature Top

Below are displayed the latest 15 articles published in PMC (PubMed Central®) and other sources (DOI number only)!
If you wish to see all the related articles click here.
Title Authors Publication Released IDs
New value chain Pentadesma nuts and butter from West Africa to international markets: Biological activities, health benefits, and physicochemical properties Chabi IB, Aïssi MV, Zannou O, Kpoclou YE, Ayegnon BP, Badoussi ME, Ballogou VY, Goksen G, Mousavi Khaneghah A, Kayodé AP Food Sci Nutr 20-Nov-2023
PMCID:PMC10867462
doi:10.1002/fsn3.3806
PMID:38370066
Xanthones: Biosynthesis and Trafficking in Plants, Fungi and Lichens Badiali C, Petruccelli V, Brasili E, Pasqua G Plants (Basel) 04-Feb-2023
PMCID:PMC9967055
doi:10.3390/plants12040694
PMID:36840041
Floristic composition and turnover analysis in Dahomey Gap and the surrounding sub‐humid Togolese mountain minor forest refuges: Importance for biogeography and biodiversity conservation in sub‐Saharan Africa Adjossou K, Kokou K, Deconchat M Ecol Evol 04-Oct-2022
PMCID:PMC9532220
doi:10.1002/ece3.9304
PMID:36225837
Dietary variability of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) Robbins MM, Ortmann S, Seiler N PLoS One 24-Aug-2022
PMCID:PMC9401121
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0271576
PMID:36001558
The metabolic and molecular mechanisms of α-mangostin in cardiometabolic disorders (Review) John OD, Mushunje AT, Surugau N, Mac Guad R Int J Mol Med 27-Jul-2022
PMCID:PMC9354700
doi:10.3892/ijmm.2022.5176
PMID:35904170
Comparative study among Avicennia marina, Phragmites australis, and Moringa oleifera based ethanolic-extracts for their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities Sohaib M, Al-Barakah FN, Migdadi HM, Husain FM Saudi J Biol Sci 25-Aug-2021
PMCID:PMC9465519
doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.08.062
PMID:36105270
Physicochemical characterization and microbiology quality of the Pentadesma butyracea fruit pulp collected from various parks in Benin Ayegnon BP, Chabi IB, Akogou FU, Kayodé AP Sci Rep 23-Aug-2021
PMCID:PMC8382840
doi:10.1038/s41598-021-96211-z
PMID:34426603
African Herbal Medicines: Adverse Effects and Cytotoxic Potentials with Different Therapeutic Applications Okaiyeto K, Oguntibeju OO Int J Environ Res Public Health 02-Jun-2021
PMCID:PMC8199769
doi:10.3390/ijerph18115988
PMID:34199632
Ethnobotanical indicator values of Non-Timber Forest Products from the Djoumouna peri-urban forest in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo Kimpouni V, Nzila JD, Watha-Ndoudy N, Madzella-Mbiemo MI, Yallo Mouhamed S, Kampe JP Heliyon 27-Mar-2021
PMCID:PMC8035505
doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06579
PMID:33869832
Plant Natural Sources of the Endocannabinoid (E)-β-Caryophyllene: A Systematic Quantitative Analysis of Published Literature Maffei ME Int J Mol Sci 07-Sep-2020
PMCID:PMC7554841
doi:10.3390/ijms21186540
PMID:32906779
Local preferences for three indigenous oil-seed plants and attitudes towards their conservation in the Kénédougou province of Burkina Faso, West-Africa Tiétiambou FR, Salako KV, Tohoun JR, Ouédraogo A J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 23-Jul-2020
PMCID:PMC7376732
doi:10.1186/s13002-020-00393-1
PMID:32703227
Antiplasmodial natural products: an update Tajuddeen N, Van Heerden FR Malar J 05-Dec-2019
PMCID:PMC6896759
doi:10.1186/s12936-019-3026-1
PMID:31805944
Evaluation model for cocoa butter equivalents based on fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol patterns Jia CH, Shin JA, Lee KT Food Sci Biotechnol 07-Jun-2019
PMCID:PMC6859180
doi:10.1007/s10068-019-00630-8
PMID:31807337
Changes in the West African forest-savanna mosaic, insights from central Togo Atsri HK, Konko Y, Cuni-Sanchez A, Abotsi KE, Kokou K PLoS One 05-Oct-2018
PMCID:PMC6173393
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0203999
PMID:30289922
Rainfall seasonality and drought performance shape the distribution of tropical tree species in Ghana Amissah L, Mohren GM, Kyereh B, Agyeman VK, Poorter L Ecol Evol 30-Jul-2018
PMCID:PMC6144999
doi:10.1002/ece3.4384
PMID:30250725

Phytochemical Profile Top

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Below are displayed the proven (via scientific papers) natural compounds!
You can also contribute to this by clicking here.
Name PubChem ID Canonical SMILES MW Found in Proof
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Prenol lipids / Monoterpenoids / Aromatic monoterpenoids
(+)-Isoxanthochymol 14282765 Click to see CC(=CCC1CC23CC(C(OC2=C(C(=O)C(C3=O)(C1(C)C)CC=C(C)C)C(=O)C4=CC(=C(C=C4)O)O)(C)C)CC=C(C)C)C 602.80 unknown https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYTOL.2010.02.006
(1S,3R,9R,11R)-7-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,4,10,10-tetramethyl-3,9,11-tris(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-5-oxatricyclo[7.3.1.01,6]tridec-6-ene-8,13-dione 10579514 Click to see CC(=CCC1CC23CC(C(OC2=C(C(=O)C(C3=O)(C1(C)C)CC=C(C)C)C(=O)C4=CC(=C(C=C4)O)O)(C)C)CC=C(C)C)C 602.80 unknown https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYTOL.2010.02.006
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Prenol lipids / Triterpenoids
Friedelanol 101341 Click to see CC1C(CCC2C1(CCC3C2(CCC4(C3(CCC5(C4CC(CC5)(C)C)C)C)C)C)C)O 428.70 unknown via CMAUP database
Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, (3beta)- 521518 Click to see CC(=C)C1CCC2(C1C3CCC4C5(CCC(C(C5CCC4(C3(CC2)C)C)(C)C)O)C)C 426.70 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Lupeol 259846 Click to see CC(=C)C1CCC2(C1C3CCC4C5(CCC(C(C5CCC4(C3(CC2)C)C)(C)C)O)C)C 426.70 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
Taraxasterol acetate 13889352 Click to see CC1C2C3CCC4C5(CCC(C(C5CCC4(C3(CCC2(CCC1=C)C)C)C)(C)C)OC(=O)C)C 468.80 unknown via CMAUP database
> Lipids and lipid-like molecules / Steroids and steroid derivatives / Bile acids, alcohols and derivatives / Hydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives / Dihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives
[(3R,4S,5S,8S,9S,10S,11S,13S,14S,17R)-4,11-dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-17-[(1R)-5-methyl-1-(sulfooxymethyl)hexyl]-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yl] hydrogen sulfate 5479475 Click to see CC(C)CCCC(COS(=O)(=O)O)C1CCC2C1(CC(C3C2CCC4C3(CCC(C4O)OS(=O)(=O)O)C)O)C 596.80 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Benzopyrans / 1-benzopyrans / Xanthones
1,3,5-Trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthen-9-one 5480342 Click to see COC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C2=O)C=CC=C3O)O 274.22 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
1,5-Dihydroxyxanthone 5480299 Click to see C1=CC2=C(C(=C1)O)OC3=CC=CC(=C3C2=O)O 228.20 unknown https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYTOL.2010.02.006
Euxanthone 5281631 Click to see C1=CC(=C2C(=C1)OC3=C(C2=O)C=C(C=C3)O)O 228.20 unknown https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYTOL.2010.02.006
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Benzopyrans / 1-benzopyrans / Xanthones / 2-prenylated xanthones
1,6-Dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-1E-butenyl)-xanthone 5319262 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C=C2C(=C1O)C(=O)C3=C(O2)C=C(C(=C3C=CC(C)(C)O)OC)O)OC)C 440.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Benzopyrans / 1-benzopyrans / Xanthones / 4-prenylated xanthones
(2R)-2,5,9,11-tetrahydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-6,10-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,2-dihydropyrano[3,2-a]xanthen-12-one 162892190 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C(=C4C(=C3C2=O)CC(C(O4)(C)C)O)O)CC=C(C)C)O)C 480.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Butyraxanthone C 44138728 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C(=C4C(=C3C2=O)CC(C(O4)(C)C)O)O)CC=C(C)C)O)C 480.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Gartanin 5281633 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=C2C(=C1O)C(=O)C3=C(C=CC(=C3O2)O)O)CC=C(C)C)O)C 396.40 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Tovophyllin A 42645954 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C(=C4C(=C3C2=O)C=CC(O4)(C)C)O)CC=C(C)C)O)C 462.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Benzopyrans / 1-benzopyrans / Xanthones / 8-prenylated xanthones
1-(3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)-3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthen-9-one 5748685 Click to see CC(=CCCC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)OC)C)C 410.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
1-[(2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl]-3,6,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthen-9-one 6450342 Click to see CC(=CCCC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)OC)C)C 410.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
2-(3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl)-1,3,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthen-9-one 162977814 Click to see CC(=CCCC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C2=O)C(=C(C(=C3)O)OC)CC=C(C)C)O)C)C 478.60 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
3-Isomangostin 13873655 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C4=C(C=C3O2)OC(CC4)(C)C)O)O)OC)C 410.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
3,6,8-Trihydroxy-1-(7-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-2-enyl)-2-methoxyxanthen-9-one 162974349 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)OC)CCCC(C)(C)O 428.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
4,8-Dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)furo[3,2-b]xanthen-5-one 163088909 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(O2)C=C4C(=C3O)C=C(O4)C(C)(C)O)O)OC)C 424.40 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
9-Hydroxycalabaxanthone 5495929 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C4=C(C=C3O2)OC(C=C4)(C)C)O)O)OC)C 408.40 unknown via CMAUP database
Butyraxanthone A 44138727 Click to see CC(=CCCC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C2=O)C(=C(C(=C3)O)OC)CC=C(C)C)O)C)C 478.60 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Butyraxanthone B 25073518 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C2C(=C(C(=C1O)O)CC=C(C)C)OC3=CC4=C(C=CC(O4)(C)C)C(=C3C2=O)O)C 462.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Butyraxanthone D 25073519 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)OC)CCCC(C)(C)O 428.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Cratoxylone 102004659 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(O2)C=C(C(=C3O)CCC(C)(C)O)O)O)OC)C 428.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
Garcinone E 10298511 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C(=C(C(=C3C2=O)CC=C(C)C)O)O)CC=C(C)C)O)C 464.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
Mangostin 5281650 Click to see CC(=CCC1=C(C2=C(C=C1O)OC3=C(C2=O)C(=C(C(=C3)O)OC)CC=C(C)C)O)C 410.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
Rubraxanthone 9953366 Click to see CC(=CCCC(=CCC1=C(C(=CC2=C1C(=O)C3=C(C=C(C=C3O2)O)O)O)OC)C)C 410.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Benzopyrans / 1-benzopyrans / Xanthones / Pyranoxanthones
8,10,12-Trihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-b]xanthen-11-one 73357119 Click to see CC1(CCC2=CC3=C(C(=C2O1)O)C(=O)C4=C(C=C(C=C4O3)O)O)C 328.30 unknown https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PHYTOL.2010.02.006
Osajaxanthone 6064803 Click to see CC1(C=CC2=C(O1)C=C3C(=C2O)C(=O)C4=C(O3)C=CC(=C4)O)C 310.30 unknown https://doi.org/10.1039/P19770000011
> Organoheterocyclic compounds / Naphthofurans
[(1S,3R,8S,9S,10R,11S,13R)-11-acetyloxy-3-hydroxy-6,9,10-trimethyl-5-oxo-4,14-dioxatetracyclo[7.5.0.01,13.03,7]tetradec-6-en-8-yl] (Z)-2-methylbut-2-enoate 162993668 Click to see CC=C(C)C(=O)OC1C2=C(C(=O)OC2(CC34C1(C(C(CC3O4)OC(=O)C)C)C)O)C 420.50 unknown https://doi.org/10.1021/NP8005953
> Phenylpropanoids and polyketides / Flavonoids / Flavans / Catechins
2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)chroman-3,5,7-triol 1203 Click to see C1C(C(OC2=CC(=CC(=C21)O)O)C3=CC(=C(C=C3)O)O)O 290.27 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384
Epicatechin 72276 Click to see C1C(C(OC2=CC(=CC(=C21)O)O)C3=CC(=C(C=C3)O)O)O 290.27 unknown https://doi.org/10.1055/S-0030-1250384

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